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Fandom & Participation - Henry Jenkins Histories, Genealogies, Methodologies News of the demise of the audience, much like the death of the author, has been greatly exaggerated. Recall Jay Rosen’... s (2006) description of “the people formerly known as the audience,” whom he characterized as “the writing readers. The viewers who picked up a camera. The formerly atomized listeners who with modest effort can connect with each other and gain the means to speak.” Rosen was certainly not alone in celebrating a not‐yet‐achieved emancipation of the spectator from the constraints of the mass media era. Here’s Clay Shirky (2005): “Every time a new consumer joins this media landscape, a new producer joins as well, because the same equipment—phones, computers—lets you consume and produce.” Some of this anticipated shift has happened. More than 300 hours of videos are posted on YouTube every minute, many of them coming from amateur, semi‐professional, non‐profit, educational, activist, religious, and governmental producers producing media for noncommercial purposes but also involving content from commercial producers that has been appropriated, remixed, and recirculated, often at the hands of their most dedicated audiences. Rosen asked, “If all would speak, who shall be left to listen?” Well, so far, we are still spending much more time listening (and watching) than speaking, though we may do so across a broader range of media platforms. Prioritizing production behaviors and separating them off from the other things audiences do overlooks the ways that curating, sharing, and discussing media content are themselves active practices that create meaning and context, even if they do not necessarily “produce” new kinds of media texts. In this changing realm, broadcast networks still have an enormous capacity to set the cultural agenda, determining which stories, performers, and topics engage the public. But conversations on social network sites also have an expanding capacity to set cultural and political priorities, often reframing and critiquing, making demands upon broadcast content, and increasing the visibility of some clips as Negotiated Readings Interpretive Communities, Subcultures, and Imaginative Publics References Fandom as Participatory Culture Andrejevic, Mark. 2007. “Surveillance in the Digital Enclosure.” Communication Review, 10, no. 4: 295–315. Ang, Ian. 1991. Desperately Seeking the Audience. London: Routledge. Banet‐Weiser, Sarah, Nancy K. Baym, Francesca Coppa, David Gauntlett, Jonathan Gray, Henry Jenkins, and Adrienne Shaw. 2014. “Participations: Dialogues on the Participatory Promise of Contemporary Culture and Politics Forum PART I: CREATIVITY.” International Journal of Communication, 8: 1069–1088. Benkler, Yochai. 2007. The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Bennett, Alanna. 2015. “What a ‘Racebent’ Hermione Granger Really Represents.” BuzzFeed Community, January 31. http://www.buzzfeed.com/alannabennett/what‐a‐racebent‐hermione‐granger‐really‐ represen‐d2yp. Bricken, Rob. 2014. “This May Be the New Fantastic Four.” io9.com, February 20. http://io9.com/this‐may‐be‐ the‐new‐fantastic‐four‐1526858787. Brooker, Will and Deborah Jermyn, eds. 2003. The Audience Studies Reader. London: Routledge. Butler, Martin. 2016. “Net‐Works: Collaborative Modes of Cultural Production in Web 2.0 Contexts.” In Precarious Alliances: Cultures and Participation in Print and Other Media, edited by Martin Butler, Abrecht Hausmann, and Anton Kirchhofer, 19–32. Oldenberg, Germany: Transcript. Butsch, Richard. 2011. “Audiences and Publics, Media and Public Spheres.” In The Handbook of Media Audiences, edited by Virginia Nightingale, 149–168. London: Wiley‐Blackwell. Carpentier, Nico. 2011. “New Configurations of the Audience?: The Challenges of User‐Generated Content for Audience Theory and Media Participation.” In The Handbook of Media Audiences, edited by Virginia Nightingale, 190–213. London: Wiley‐Blackwell. Dayan, Daniel. 2005. “Mothers, Midwives and Abortionists: Genealogy, Obstetrics, Audiences and Publics.” In Audiences and Publics: Where Cultural Engagement Matters for the Public Sphere, edited by Sonia Livingstone, 43–76. Bristol: Intellect. De Kosnik, Abigail. 2013. “Interrogating ‘Free’ Fan Labor.” Spreadable Media. http://spreadablemedia.org/ essays/kosnik/. ——. 2016. Rogue Archives: Digital Cultural Memory and Media Fandom. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Hall, Stuart. 1980 . “Encoding/Decoding.” In Culture, Media, Language: Working Papers in Cultural Studies, 1972–79, edited by Stuart Hall, Dorothy Hobson, Andrew Lowe, and Paul Willis, 128–138. London: Hutchinson. ——. 1981. “Notes on Deconstructing ‘The Popular’.” In People’s History and Socialist Theory, edited by Raphael Samuel, 227–240. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. ——. 1992. “What is This ‘Black’ in Black Popular Culture?” In Black Popular Culture: A Project, edited by Michele Wallace and Gina Dent, 21–33. Seattle: Bay Press. Hellekson, Karen and Kristina Busse, eds. 2006. Fan Fiction and Fan Communities in the Age of the Internet. Jefferson, NC: McFarland and Company. ——, eds. 2014. The Fan Fiction Studies Reader. Iowa City, IA: University of Iowa Press. Jenkins, Henry. 1992. Textual Poachers: Television Fans and Participatory Culture. New York: Routledge. ——. 2015. “How the Extended Marvel Universe (and Other Superhero Stories) Can Enable Political Debates.” Confessions of an Aca‐Fan, May 6, http://henryjenkins.org/2015/05/how‐the‐extended‐ marvel‐universe‐and‐other‐superhero‐stories‐can‐enable‐political‐debates.html. ——. 2016a. “Participation? It’s Complicated (A Response to Martin Butler).” In Precarious Alliances: Cultures and Participation in Print and Other Media, edited by Martin Butler, Albrecht Hausmann, and Anton Kirchhofer, 33–46. Oldenberg, Germany: Transcript. ——. 2016b. “How the New Star Trek Fan Film Guidelines May Change Fandom.” Confessions of an Aca‐Fan, September 22. http://henryjenkins.org/2016/09/how‐the‐new‐star‐trek‐fan‐film‐guidelines‐may‐ change‐fandom.html ——, Sam Ford, and Joshua Green. 2013. Spreadable Media: Creating Value and Meaning in a Networked Culture. New York: New York University Press.26 Henry Jenkins ——, Mimi Ito, and danah boyd. 2015. Participatory Culture in a Networked Era. London: Polity. ——, Ravi Purushotoma, Margaret Weigel, Katherine Clinton, and Alice J. Robison. 2009. Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture: Media Education for the 21st Century. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Jordan, Michael B. 2015. “Why I’m Torching the Color Line.” Entertainment Weekly, May 22. http://www. ew.com/article/2015/05/22/michael‐b‐jordan‐fantastic‐four‐race. Kelty, Chris, Aaron Panofsky, Morgan Currie, Roderic Crooks, Seth Erickson, Patricia Garcia, Michael Wartenbe, and Stacy Wood. 2015. “Seven Dimensions of Contemporary Participation Disentangled.” Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 66, no. 3: 474–488. Kligler‐Vilenchik, Neta. 2013. “‘Decreasing World Suck’: Fan Communities, Mechanisms of Translation, and Participatory Politics, Youth and Participatory Politics Network.” Youth Participatory Politics Research Network, June 23. http://ypp.dmlcentral.net/publications/164. Livingstone, Sonia. 2005. “On the Relations between Audiences and Publics.” In Audiences and Publics: When Cultural Engagement Matters for the Public Sphere, edited by Sonia Livingstone, 17–42. Bristol: Intellect. Lopez, Lori Kido. 2012. “Fan‐Activists and the Politics of Race in The Last Airbender.” International Journal of Cultural Studies, 15, no. 5, September: 431–445. Merrick, Helen. 2009. The Secret Feminist Cabal: A Cultural History of Science Fiction Feminisms. Seattle, WA: Aqueduct Press. Morley, David. 1980. The Nationwide Audience. London: BFI. Rabinowitz, Peter J. 1985. “The Turn of the Glass Key: Popular Fiction as Reading Strategy.” Critical Inquiry 11, no. 3: 418–431. Rosen, Jay. 2006. “The People Formerly Known as the Audience.” PressThink, June 27. http://archive. pressthink.org/2006/06/27/ppl_frmr.html. Russ, Joanna. 1983. How to Suppress Women’s Writing. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. Saler, Michael. 2011. As If: Modern Enchantment and the Literary Prehistory of Virtual Reality. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Scott, Suzanne. 2009. “Repackaging Fan Culture: The Regifting Economy of Ancillary Content Models.” Transformative Works and Cultures, 3. http://journal.transformativeworks.org/index.php/twc/article/ view/150/122. ——. 2015. “The Hawkeye Initiative: Pinning Down Transformative Feminisms in Comicbook Culture Through Superhero Crossplay Fan Art.” Cinema Journal, 55, no. 1: 150–160. Shirky, Clay. 2005. “Institutions Vs. Collaboration.” Speech at TEDGlobal conference in Oxford, UK, July 14. http://www.ted.com/talks/clay_shirky_on_institutions_versus_collaboration. Stanfill, Mel. 2011. “Doing Fandom, (Mis)Doing Whiteness: Heteronormativity, Racialization, and the Discursive Construction of Fandom.” Transformative Works and Cultures, 8. http://journal. transformativeworks.org/index.php/twc/article/view/256/243. Tulloch, John. 2000. Watching Television Audiences: Cultural Theories & Methods. London: Arnold. Turk, Tisha. 2014. “Fan Work: Labor, Worth, and Participation in Fandom’s Gift Economy.” Transformative Works and Cultures, 15. http://journal.transformativeworks.org/index.php/twc/article/view/518/428. Warren, Ken “Kwik.” 2014. “Comic Book Geeks in Uproar Over Black Human Torch; Won’t Be Long Before Megyn Kelly Chimes In.” Daily Kos, February 20. http://www.dailykos.com/story/2014/02/20/ 1279001/‐Comic‐Book‐Geeks‐in‐Uproar‐Over‐Black‐Human‐Torch‐Won‐t‐Be‐Long‐Before‐Megyn‐ Kelly‐Chimes‐In. Williams, Raymond. 2011 . “Culture is Ordinary.” In The Everyday Life Reader, edited by Ben Highmore, 91–100. London: Routledge. Williams, Stereo. 2015. “Amandla Stenberg Understands Appropriation Better Than You,” The Daily Beast, April 17, http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2015/04/17/amandla‐stenberg‐understands‐ appropriation‐better‐than‐you.html. Zubernis, Lynn and Katherine Larsen. 2012. Fandom at the Crossroads: Celebration, Shame, and Fan/ Producer Relationships. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing [Show More]
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