Statistics > Exam > foundations of statistics_sophia_final milestone,100% CORRECT (All)
Michael checked several car dealerships around town for the make and model he wanted to purchase. He received eight different quotes: $28,345 $26,780 $28,345 $27,785 $29,450 $28,459 $28,700 $29... ,995 What is the median car price? • $28,482.38 • $28,402 • $28,345 • $28,459 2 Derek recently took up gardening. To determine what type of fertilizer would keep his plants their healthiest, he took three identical plants and applied a different type of fertilizer to each. Next, Derek observed how much each plant grew. Derek is in effect performing an experiment that contains explanatory and response variables. Which statement best describes the explanatory and response variables involved in this experiment? • Plant type is the response variable and fertilizer is the explanatory variable, because different plants will require different amounts of fertilizer. • Plant growth is the explanatory variable and fertilizer is the response variable, because fertilizer manipulates plant growth. • Fertilizer is the response variable and plant growth is the explanatory variable, because Derek measures plant growth as he changes fertilizers. • Fertilizer is the explanatory variable and plant growth is the response variable, because a change in fertilizer makes each plant grow differently. 3 Anthony recently graduated with a bachelor's degree in nursing (BSN) and was looking for a job at a local hospital. As part of his research, he gathered data on the national average pay for a BSN by looking at nursing salaries at hospitals countrywide. Then he looked at the average pay for BSNs at hospitals in his city, as well as cities nearby. What is the sample in Anthony's scenario? • The local average salary for a BSN • The total number of hospitals in the country • The number of hospitals in Anthony's area • The national average salary for a BSN 4 What percent of a data set is represented by the total area under a normal distribution curve? • 75% • 25% • 50% • 100% 5 Which probability value indicates that there is statistical significance? • 0.2356 • 0.015 • 0.9756 • 0.9078 6 Jean works for the government and was conducting a survey to determine the income levels of a number of different neighborhoods in a metropolitan area. Based on national data, Jean knows that the mean income level in the country is $40,000, with a standard deviation of $2,000. Jean selected three neighborhoods and determined the average income level. What is the probability that the average income level in the neighborhoods was less than $38,000? • 16% • 84% • 90% • 10% 7 In a normal distribution, which statement best describes the relationship between mean, median, and mode? • The mean is the smallest value, the mode is the largest value, and the median lies between the mean and mode. • The mode is the most common value, the median is the smallest, and the mean is the middle value. • The mean and median are the same, while the mode is always larger than either the mean or median. • The mean, median, and mode are the same. 8 This graph shows survey results on the average sale price of restored 1969 Camaros. What type of data does this graph represent? • Interval • Ratio • Nominal • Ordinal 9 Which statement best describes the strength, direction, and correlation coefficient of the scatter plot shown here? • Strong negative association with correlation coefficient close to 1 • Weak association with correlation coefficient close to 0 • Strong positive association with correlation coefficient close to 0 • Strong association with correlation coefficient close to -1 10 Because her current dishwasher detergent wasn't getting her dishes as clean and clear as she wanted them to be, Gwen decided to change brands. Before she washed her next load of dishes, she made a hypothesis as to the outcome of using a new detergent. Which of the following would be the null hypothesis? • There is no difference between the performance of one brand compared to the other. • The new and old detergents will both clean the dishes. • The old detergent will not clean the dishes as well as the new detergent. • The new detergent will not be as good as the old detergent. 11 A researcher read that singing to plants causes them to grow an extra 0.5 inches on average per month. He tests this with 20 of his own plants by bringing 10 to work and leaving 10 at home. The ones at home he sings to each day and he does not sing to the ones at his office. Which would be a control variable he could use in this experiment? • Fertilizing the ones at his office since they will receive less water. • Ensuring that the two sets of plants will receive the same amount of water and light. • Putting all the flowering plants in his office and the non-flowering plants at home. • Having someone different sing to the plants each day. 12 Gaurav was conducting a test to determine if the average amount of medication his patients were taking was similar to the national average. He wants to use a 5% significance level for his test to help ensure that his patients do not receive too little or too much medication. If Gaurav were to conduct a test, what probability value would indicate that his null hypothesis (that there is no significant difference between the amount of medication Gaurav's patients are receiving and the national average) would be rejected? • 45.69% • 92.18% • 0.45% • 10.27% 13 Clarice was in the process of creating a report on the performance of her students and was trying to determine the z-score related to overall student scores. If the mean percentage of students was 75% and the standard deviation was 10%, what z-score would correspond to a student that ended the course with a 95%? • -1 • -3 • -2 • 1 • 3 • 2 14 If the sum of squares for a sample containing 51 items equals 400, what is the standard deviation? • 2.83 • 7.84 • 8.00 • 4.47 15 The data set below represents the heights (in inches) of students in a particular high school class: 72 67 62 64 59 71 62 66 67 75 67 62 What is the range of the data set? • 75 inches • 16 inches • 18 inches • 12 inches 16 The data on this graph represents the number of sales for several types of vehicles in 2015. Which vehicle represents the mode? • Mustang • F-150 • Camaro • Corvette • Challenger • Accord 17 Which statement explains what the slope tells you about the variables in this graph? • The graph shows that there is a positive relationship between running and calories burned. • The graph shows that for every calorie consumed, the amount of time running will be reduced. • The graph shows that there is a negative relationship between time spent running and calories burned. • The graph shows that for every minute spent running, the runner must consume more calories. 18 Web designer Rachel developed an interactive website and wanted to test its ease of use. To gather some data, Rachel asked her co-workers to test the site and give her feedback. Rachel presented her design on her personal blog and left a survey for feedback from her readers. Which of the following is an example of selection bias? • Rachel chose her co-workers to review the interface for ease of navigation. • Rachel chose to gather data randomly from a wide range of users. • Other designers gave their opinions of the interface design. • The people who fill out Rachel's survey are able to choose whether or not they take the survey. 19 Which statement regarding the region of rejection for a 5% significance level is TRUE? • The region of rejection lies between the z-scores -2 and 2. • The region of rejection indicates that the null hypothesis is true. • If a z-score falls within the region of rejection, this means that the alternate hypothesis should be rejected. • A z-score above 2 is part of the region of rejection. 20 Given this z-table and the standard normal distribution shown in the graph, which z-score represents a value that is likely to occur? • 3.24 • 1.49 • 2.34 • -3.50 21 Part of Patrick's job as manager of an indoor pool at the local community center was to determine what gender used the pool most, what age group used the pool most, and what days the pool was busiest. Patrick wants to create either a bar graph or a histogram of his data. For what data would the histogram be the best way to represent Patrick's information? • What gender used the pool most • What age group used the pool most • What days the pool was busiest • All of the data is best graphed using a histogram 22 Which statement is true regarding a 95% confidence interval? • Only 2.5% of the data will indicate a significant value. • There is a 2.5% chance that the alternate hypothesis will not be rejected. • There is a 95% chance that the null hypothesis will be rejected. • There is a 5% chance that the population mean will not fall in the range given by the confidence interval. 23 Ahmad was conducting some tests to determine if there was a relationship between taking sleeping pills and the amount of sleep a person gets. His null hypothesis was that taking sleeping pills did not have any effect on the amount of sleep a person receives. Ahmad's alternate hypothesis was that taking sleeping pills increases the amount of sleep a person will get. If Ahmad completed his study, which of the following statements would indicate a Type II error? • Ahmad's results showed that sleeping pills did not affect the amount of sleep participants were getting when in fact sleeping pills were increasing the sleep people were getting. • Ahmad's results showed that sleeping pills did not affect the amount of sleep participants were getting when in fact there was not a cause and effect relationship between the two variables. • Ahmad's results showed that sleeping pills caused people to get more sleep, and in fact sleeping pills and the amount of sleep people were getting did have a positive cause and effect relationship. • Ahmad's results showed that taking sleeping pills did increase the amount of sleep people were getting when in fact sleeping pills were not affecting sleep. 24 A teacher wanted to understand how his students' grades were distributed on the final exam. The grades were: 87 61 99 72 76 89 93 82 91 What is the interquartile range of the grades? • 18 • 15 • 4 • 38 [Show More]
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